The Battle of Actium was a catastrophe for the hopes and dreams of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. The famous couple believed that they are well-prepared to fight with the army led by Octavian, but they were wrong.
Varied Numbers of Troops
According to some researchers, the Roman forces for this battle included 250 galleys, 16,000 infantry, and 3,000 archers. On the other hand, Cleopatra and Antony are said to have had 290 galleys, 50 transports, 20,000 infantry, and 2,000 archers. With these numbers, it is surprising at first glance that Cleopatra and Antony’s forces lost the battle.
‘Antony and Cleopatra’ (1885) by Lawrence Alma Tadema. (Public Domain)